Evolution of Percutaneous Renal Acess
BAUS ePoster online library. Ahmed M. Jun 25, 2019; 259563; P6-9
Mussammet Ahmed
Mussammet Ahmed
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Abstract
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INTRODUCTION:
Percutaneous Renal Acess remains a vital part of the modern-day urology practice. Its indication ranges from emergency management of obstructed renal tracts to elective access for calculi.

Materials and Method:
We carried out PubMed, ClinicalKey and Google Scholar literature search on percutaneous renal access history. We tried to access as much older literature available.

Result:
First nephroscopy was performed in 1941 using rigid cystoscopy during open surgery. In 1954, Wickbom opacified the renal pelvis directly by injecting contrast medium through a long needle. Thus, the antegrade nephrostogram was first performed. The following year, Goodwin used a catheter for drainage. In 1965, Bartley used a guidewire technique for drainage of the urinary tract, and in 1976, Frenstrom and Johansson reported dilation of the nephrostomy tract for stone removal.

By 1978, Stables reviewed the techniques used in the performance of 516 nephrostomies. Smith, in 1979, coined the term endourology. In 1982, Castaneda-Zuniga and Amplatz published the technique of fluoroscopic guidance to extract stones with Randall forceps. Coleman in 1985, reported 99% success rate in a study of 450 patients. Smith and Amplatz together developed Amplatz retention catheter in 1986. Thus, the technique of percutaneous drainage of the urinary tract with subsequent percutaneous removal of obstructing stones made advancements during the 1970s. Today, percutaneous urinary tract interventions are an integral part of endourology.

Conclusion:
Clinical need has led to the establishment of percutaneous renal access procedure. In this presentation, we discuss the history of Percutaneous Renal Access in detail with pictures.
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